Constraints and Challenges to the Legal Relationship: From the Legal Entity to the Animal and the Robot

Jose Luis Bonifacio Ramos


The purpose of this article is to reflect on the constraints placed on the legal relationship, due to the autonomy of the legal person, as well as the possible attribution of rights to animals and robots. Such modifications, by implying the correlative quality of legal subjects, raise new challenges to the legal relationship, bearing in mind, above all, the recent emergence to the re-personalization of civil law.

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