The Predominant Factors Affecting Frontline Employees’ Engagement: Case of the Lebanese Service Sector

Abdo Zoughaib, Soha El Achi, Ali El Dirani, Hussin J. Hejase


The purpose of this study is to first identify the predominant factors shaping frontline employee engagement and then to explore the outcomes of the employees’ engagement within the context of the service sector in Lebanon. The main theory used to ground the research is the explanatory power of the Social Exchange Theory (SET). A qualitative ethnographic method was used to explore the salient drivers and outcomes of employees’ engagement. The qualitative approach was implemented by observing and informally interviewing frontline employees, and by gathering documentary data for a greater understanding of this phenomenon. Findings show that supervisor support, organizational support, training, distributive justice and procedural justice appeared to be significant drivers of employee engagement. It was also evident that personal resources and self-efficacy have a significant moderator effect between supervisor support, distributive justice and employee engagement. Moreover, employee organizational commitment, intention to quit and organizational citizenship behaviors revealed to be the direct outcomes of employees’ engagement. This study is among the first undertaken in the Lebanese context. The findings shall help to close the gap in the reported literature about the topic and will serve HR decision makers as new knowledge for future endeavors.

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Copyright (c) 2021 Abdo Zoughaib, Soha El Achi, Ali El Dirani, Hussin J. Hejase

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