Capital Adequacy and Liquidity of Global Financial Institutions: A Study of Reforms after the Great Recession

Mehdi Monadjemi, John Lodewijks


The global financial crises of 2007-2009 was followed by the Great Recession which was the worst since the Great Depression of 1930s. The crises left significant adverse effects on global growth and employment. Policymakers of affected countries responded differently to the outcomes of these crises. The central banks, including US Federal Reserve Bank and Bank of England, provided ample liquidity for the financial institutions and lowered the interest rate to near zero. The policymakers and regulators realized that capital inadequacy and insufficient liquidity of financial institutions were the main problems preventing the financial firms to protect themselves against major financial crises. In addition, lack of guidelines for compensations encourages managers to take the extra risks.

The US Federal Reserve Bank took the initiative, in cooperation with international central banks to introduce rules and regulations to safeguard the financial systems against another major crisis. It is not guaranteed that another episode of financial instability will not happen again. However, with existing regulations on financial institutions in force, the severity of the crises on the whole global financial system may possibly become weaker. This is a conjecture we explore here.

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