Characterization of Chemical Composition in Fine Particles (PM2.5) from Industrial Site in Malaysia

Syabiha Shith, Noor Faizah Fitri Md Yusof, Nor Azam Ramli, Maher Elbayoumi


This research aims to investigate variations of fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and chemical composition in an industrialized area. Concentration levels of fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) were continuously monitored at three sampling site S1, S2 and S3. The variations of PM2.5 concentration were analysed using descriptive statistics, time series plot, diurnal plot and correlation. Source apportionment and factor analysis were carried out using the chemical composition data from ICP-OES. Meteorological effects on PM2.5 concentration were used to investigate the effects on PM2.5 concentration. The results showed that, the average PM2.5 concentration was 19.75 ± 12, 46.68 ± 27, and 20.55 ± 9 ?g m-3 at sites in a S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The highest PM2.5 concentration was recorded in S2 (115 ?g m-3). The PM2.5 concentration in the diurnal plot exhibited an inversed unimodal pattern during morning (7:00 to 9:00) and evening (16:00 to 18:00). PM2.5 concentration in S2 on weekends was 36% lower than that on weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit an inversed relation with wind speed and temperature. Although wind speed had a negative association with PM2.5 in S1 and S2, a positive correlation was observed at S3. Source apportionment from factor analysis distinguished three groups of possible sources; crustal materials (Al, K, Sr, Ti and Na), vehicles emission (Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) and industrial activities (Ca, Mg and Pb).

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