Analysis of Urban Surface Temperature Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS)

Bernard Tarza Tyubee, Raymond Nlemadim Chima Anyadike


The study analysed variation in surface temperature (ST) in Makurdi Urban Area (MUA), Northcentral Nigeria. A total of 12 Landsat TM/ETM+ images were acquired in January, April and June of 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006. The ST was estimated from the 12 Landsat TM/ETM+ images, grouped into seven classes, and the area of each ST class was determined using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). The ST magnitudes vary spatially from 27.5oC (water bodies) to 50.7oC (built-up land), representing an intensity of 23.2oC. The mean seasonal ST varies from 32.4oC-34.5oC (cool-dry season), 35.5oC-38.8oC (hot-dry season) and 30.8oC-31.4oC (hot-wet season). The mean annual ST has increased from 32.9oC (1991) to 35.9oC (2006) with ST intensity of 3.0oC. The ST classes of 27oC-29oC and 33oC-37oC recorded the highest loss and gain in area of -126.5km2 and 94.5km2 whereas ST classes of 29oC-33oC and 41oC-45oC recorded the least and highest per centage change in area of 22% and 768%. The result showed decreasing and increasing trends in the areas of cooler and warmer surfaces, which are attributed to increase in anthropogen surface materials, with higher heat storage capacities, due to urbanisation.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.