The Impact of Sino-Soviet Relations on the Evolution of China’s Foreign Policy (1945-1956)

Li Yang


“Sino-Soviet relations were pivotal in the diplomatic history of the PRC after its establishment. On one hand, the CCP received significant economic assistance and political support. However, like any alliance, it revealed conflicts between collective ideology and national interests. These tensions even drew the PRC into Korean wars that might have otherwise been avoided. Concurrently, the PRC developed a self-reliant and peaceful diplomatic policy soon after forming the Sino-Soviet alliance. The mutual relations between the CCP and CPSU closely influenced the emerging PRC’s foreign policy.

This study aims to research how these ties between the CCP and CPSU impacted the evolution of the PRC’s foreign policy from 1945 to 1956. Such research is essential for understanding the formation of the PRC’s foreign policy through the lens of inter-party diplomacy, explaining the enduring principle of an independent foreign policy focused on peace. This study employs historical research methods and archive analysis, drawing from declassified historical archives and primary and secondary sources, while critically analysing international relations theories based on historical facts.

The findings reveal that the USSR’s primary concern was its national interest, while the CPC idealized it as a revolutionary party. As a result, the CCP developed an independent and self-reliant diplomatic approach based on different foundations.

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