Age is Not Just a Number: Perceptions of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Transformational Teaching, Student-Professor Engagement in Learning, and Deep Learning in the Graduate Classroom

Jennifer Economos, Ed.D., Albert Inserra, Ed.D.


Graduate students in higher education need pedagogical strategies that prepare them with knowledge and critical thinking for their careers. Research conducted in this area concluded that teaching students how to integrate knowledge into the real-world continues to be a challenge for educators across various disciplines in higher education. While scholars have studied effective teaching practices for decades, a broad definition has not been determined. Graduate students’ perceptions of professor pedagogical content knowledge, transformational teaching, student deep learning, and age were compared to determine the behaviors that influence deep learning in business and education programs in the United States and internationally. A survey was administered to 137 students. Findings show that non-traditional learners did not feel as strongly about individualized consideration as traditional learners. The findings suggest that graduate students perceive humor, learning struggles, and relatable content differently.

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