American College Football and Homophobia: An Empirical Study

Jake Ashton, Derek Van Rheenen, Laura Pryor


This study examines how male hegemony in team sports, such as football, promote homophobia as a form of symbolic violence and a powerful mechanism of social control. The research included the survey administration of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men (ATG) scale (Herek, 1984, 1994) to one Division I college football team on the west coast of the United States, measuring participants’ relative levels of homophobia. Findings indicate that approximately two-thirds (n=65) of the members of this college football team reported a positive attitude towards homosexuality within this study, while roughly one-third of respondents had negative attitudes toward gay men. Level of religious faith, regardless of denomination, was the best predictor of participants’ attitudes toward homosexuality. Finally, the article discusses the study’s limitations, directions for future research and implications to enhance a more open and inclusive climate within American college football.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © SCHOLINK INC.   ISSN 2573-0401 (Print)    ISSN 2573-041X (Online)